Keywords: bioleaching; copper production; large scale; sulﬁde minerals 1. Introduction Chile has important mineral wealth, where copper stands among the most important. Back in its history, the Spanish conquerers realized the potential of Chile as a mining territory, although at that time they were mostly focused on the recovery of gold and
Bioleaching researchers argue that the metals and the bacteria both occur naturally in the ground. and if using bioleaching outdoors this would allow the nearby groundwater to absorb the acid. and this can mean a low rate of production from a mining operation.
Generally, the beginning and the end of most small scale mining attempts, is the prospecting phase. This is because most prospectors are not geologists and have not had the experience and education required to comprehend the nature and origin of mineral and metal deposits in the earth.