Columns consist of two major material one is concrete and second one is steel. Architects do calculate the total stress caused by the live and dead load of the entire building and will design the internal components (foundation, beam, and columns) of
The concrete column is crushed and collapse of the column is due to the material failure. To overcome this, the concrete column should have sufficient cross-sectional area, so that the stress is under the specified limit. This type of failure is generally seen in case of pedestals whose height to least lateral dimension is less than 3 and does ...
Columns and struts may therefore be described as either SHORT or SLENDER depending on its mode of failure. A short column or strut will fail internally by yielding in the case of ductile materials, such as mild steel, or by shearing in the case of brittle materials such as concrete.
The steel reinforced concrete columns in the pictures above failed due to the loss of vertical-load-carrying capacity leading to cascading vertical collapse. The beam-column joints could not support the load any longer or transfer the load elsewhere and therefore failed and buckled.